“New is not always better.” This caution seems reasonable when considering the value of the recently approved medications for treatment of Type 2 (adult type) diabetes. Â These drugs include three new classes of medication referred to as GLP-1 analogs, DPP-4 inhibitors and most recently SGLT-2 inhibitors. The focus of this discussion will be the most widely prescribed of the newcomers, the DPP-4 inhibitors.
The first thing consumers will notice about the new diabetes medications are their TV commercial friendly names, Â Januvia, Onglyza, Tradjenta, and Nesina. Â Mix these newcomer drugs together into a single pill with the venerable low cost generic metformin and the names becomes Janumet, Kombiglyze, Jentadueto, and Kazano.
The next thing a consumer will notice is the price tag. At the local pharmacy in Jupiter, Florida the retail prices of a 3 month supply of Januvia, Onglyza or Tradjenta are all about $1100. Â A three month supply of the established generic drug, glipizide, is $9.99 and metformin is between zero and $41. (more…)
The FDA just announced its approval of linagliptin (Tradjenta), a new diabetes medication developed by Eli Lilly and Company and Boehringer Inglheim. Linagliptin is the third drug to be approved in the class of medications commonly known as gliptins (scientifically known as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors) which block the destruction of a glucose controlling hormone, GLP-1. Januvia, developed by Merck and Company, was the first of the gliptins to be approved in 2006. Three years later in 2009, Onglyza, developed by AstraZeneca was approved while two other similar drugs were withdrawn from the approval process in the meantime.
Diabetes drugs are evaluated by the FDA for safety and for their ability to combat diabetes by lowering blood sugar. Assuming the drug being evaluated is safe then we will want to know how effectively the new medicine lowers the blood sugar. The glycohemoglobin A1c blood test represents the average blood sugar for the prior 3 months, and is the most concise way of assessing an individuals over all blood sugar control. By determining the ability of a medicine to lower the â€œglycoA1câ€ we can get a very accurate idea of the strength of the medicine for diabetes treatment. In general, physicians set a glycoA1c goal of 7% or less for their diabetic patients which equates to an average blood sugar level of 154 mg/dl or 8.6 mmol/L.
Linagliptin passed the FDAâ€™s strigent safety review. Several large studies sponsored by the drug developers show the linagliptin lowers glycohemoglobin A1c by about 0.5. For example, if a person has a glycoA1c of 7.5 % before starting linagliptin, they can anticipate it will be 7.0% when on the medication. This translates to an average blood sugar of 169 mg/dl dropping to 154. This is virtually the same effect found with Januvia and Onglyza, the other medicines in this group.This amount of blood sugar lowering seems feeble but the benefit is even worse then that. Hereâ€™s why.
Blood tests are accurate enough for the clinical purposes of physicianâ€™s diagnosing and treating their patients. â€œClinical purposesâ€ allow for some fuzziness in measurements. Does it matter to a patientâ€™s health if the blood sugar is 200 or 210? Not really. In general, a variation of 10% is acceptable for clinical blood tests, meaning that if a result is given as 100, a repeat measurement of the same blood sample could read between 95 and 105. For the glycohemoglobin A1c test a variation of 0.5 is common with standard laboratory techniques. For an individual on linagliptin there is virtually no way to determine if the change in glycoA1c is due to the medication or is simply within the variation of the blood test. Not very impressive is it?
How much is the average person going to pay for this unimpressive effect? I researched the retail cost of Januvia, the sister drug to linagliptin. Drugstore.com lists a price of $216 for 30 pills after a 18% saving. $7 per pill….wow!! I assume linagliptin will be priced competitively. Compare this to the price of $13 for a monthâ€™s supply of metformin, currently the most prescribed oral agent for treating diabetes. In contrast, metformin shows a 1.5% to 2% drop in glycohemoglobin A1c, more than three times that of the gliptins such as linagliptin.
I have used both Januvia and Onglyza in my medical practice. As advertised, I havenâ€™t encountered significant side effects. Also, as advertised the effect of these medicines to lower blood sugar has been disappointing and complaints by patients about the cost has been a constant theme. At the same time my email inbox is stuffed with invitations to join online symposiums with paid experts inevitably focusing on how to ramp up my use of these drugs. The sales pitch is given in inflated marketing lingo as a â€œchange in the treatment paradigmâ€ for treating diabetes. Buyer beware, is my advice for the health care consumer starting a new medication for treating type 2 diabetes.
The mission of the The Thyroid Project is to encourage sharing of information and experience between the public and the medical community about the treatment of hypothyroidism (low thyroid function). For at least the past few decades there is a growing awareness of â€œsomething missingâ€ in the way suffers of hypothyroidism are treated for their disease.
Too many patients, as documented in an on-line study of 12,000 individuals conducted by the American Thyroid Association published in June 2018, (https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2017.0681) , complain of persistent symptoms of hypothyroidism despite what their doctors believe is successful treatment with levothyroxine (brands include Synthroid, Unithroid, Tirosent, Levoxl). We believe something needs to be done to resolve this conflict between patients and their doctors.
By Gary M. Pepper, M.D. Ozempic, Rybelsus, Trulicity, Wegovy, Saxenda are the central players in the weight loss craze sweeping across the globe. Metabolisim.com has been monitoring this phenomenon from its beginnings in 2008 with its report “Lizard Spit Reduces Blood Sugar and Appetite”, regarding the first drug in this class, Byetta (exenatide). Caught In the middle of the current chaos are the medical experts who treat diabetes and have been prescribing these medications for more than a decade. Here is a brief commentary from one such board certified endocrinologist; “I started treating Type 2 diabetics with GLP-1 agonists more than 10 years ago. In some respects, these medications have revolutionized the treatment of diabetes by lowering blood sugar effectively and promoting weight loss at the same time, a unique combination of benefits. Not everyone benefits from these drugs to the same degree unfortunately, and I have seen lots of patients experience unacceptable side effects from them. Nothing though, has prepared me for what is happening now. Too often, I find myself confronting someone who expects me to prescribe one of these drugs just so they can lose weight. Sadly, one extreme example was someone who, despite battling a life threatening medical condition, was insistent on getting a prescription. At the same time my diabetic patients are scrambling to find a place to buy their medications if they can even afford it. It is disheartening, to say the least, and I dread the negative interactions with some of my patients I now face almost daily.”
Off- Label Use
The FDA is the U.S. government’s department tasked with evaluating and approving drugs for specific medical conditions. When a new medication is approved for treating a medical condition by the FDA the agency will, at the same time, set strict guidelines for exactly which patients may use the newly approved drug. When a medication is used “off-label” it means that these limitations are being overridden by the provider for a potential benefit which outweighs the drugs risks. It is a general misconception that off-label means illegal; it does not. This practice has been going on for ages and more than 20% of prescriptions in the United States are prescribed off-label. A common example is the use of beta-blockers (approved for heart problems) for the treatment of performance anxiety.
GLP-1 agonist drugs, as discussed recently by metabolism.com. were originally approved for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes in adults. In the past few years most of these same medications have gained unprecedented popularity for their “off-label” weight loss benefit. Of the 5 GLP-1 agents presently in U.S. pharmacies only Wegovy (semaglutide) and Saxenda (liraglutide) are FDA approved for treating obesity. Of these two, Wegovy is the newer and had been much more popular that its sister drug Saxenda, probably due to being dosed only once weekly compared to daily for Saxenda and less likely to cause side effects. Due to Wegovy’s soaring popularity, its manufacturer, Novo Nordisk, increased the price of Wegovy two times since its initial release.
by Gary M. Pepper, M.D. and Sam Jeans, MSc The global anti-obesity drug market, in 2021was valued at over $2 billion. Within one year this figure had skyrocketed to $8 billion and is expected to climb to nearly $ 20 billion by 2027. This astounding growth is a reflection of soaring obesity rates, and the arrival of a new class of weight loss medication fueling a craze both in the USA and across the world.
The FDA and global health regulators, until very recently, had maintained a very tight ship when it comes to treating obesity with medication, placing the emphasis on diet and exercise rather than weight loss drugs. Since the 80s, anti-obesity drugs continued to be controversial, and a more stringent FDA implemented ongoing safety trials along with other precautions. There is some speculation that a shift in attitude toward approval of weight loss medication by the FDA , is underway
Weight loss drug controversies are far from over and, in fact, may soon rival the amphetamine crisis of the 70’s. For that reason, metabolism.com has felt it important to provide our guide to weight loss drug issues, past and present.
Anti-Obesity Drugs Timeline
Prescription drugs for lifestyle diseases such as obesity were marketed heavily throughout the 1950s to the 1970s. Amphetamines entered the public domain after the Second World War where they were used extensively in the military.
In the 50s, walk-in clinics prescribed diet pills with other medications almost at random, with or without genuine concern for one’s weight. These brightly colored pills became known as “rainbow pills”.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the so-called “rainbow pill diet” of pills was finally coming to an end as the FDA began to systematically ban many of the drugs involved. A high-profile expose by investigative journalist Susanna Mcbee, published in Life magazine, brought attention to this new modern public health crisis.
The rainbow pill diet combined amphetamines, laxatives, thyroid hormones, and even diuretics to produce extreme weight loss, combined with benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and steroids to reduce side effects, and antidepressants to suppress medication-induced insomnia and anxiety.
In 1968, rainbow pills were linked to over 60 deaths, with numerous accounts of their devastating impact surfacing in the news and media. Within just two months, 48 million pills were seized and destroyed. Nevertheless, amphetamine-based diet pills remained extremely popular throughout the 1970s. In 1978, some 3.3 million prescriptions for amphetamines were written each year, with some 50 million pills a year ending up in the black market.
In 1979, the FDA banned amphetamines as a weight loss aid, but that is hardly the end of the USA’s love affair with obesity medication.
Here’s a brief timeline of recent anti-obesity drugs:
Lack of energy and inability to lose weight are constant challenges for many people and are every day complaints encountered in the doctor’s office. Almost anyone can find some relief from these problems by accessing the healing properties of physical activity. Mentioning to a patient the need for ‘more exercise’ often causes rolling of the eyes, sighing, shrugging, snorting or worse yet, the hundred-yard stare. We all know exercise is important but who has the energy for that? It seems like a vicious cycle. Surprisingly, when done correctly, exercise can improve energy with the additional advantage of promoting weight loss and restoring tone and stamina. It is helpful to remember that the human body was designed for a lot more physical activity and a lot less food than we are privileged to experience in present day life. It therefore takes will power and knowledge to maintain the environment required for optimal health. Here are eight steps to get in the swing of regular exercise. Some suggestions may surprise you.